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What are Exosomes and Growth Factors?

Extracellular Vesicles or formerly known as Exosomes are small vesicles ranging from 30-120 nm (nanometers) in size that are found in nearly all eukaryotic fluids and facilitate a range of important cellular functions. They majorly transfer RNA (mRNA and miRNA) and Proteins (cytokines, chemokines, etc.) Thereby altering the function of the target cells. These nano-sized vesicles are now becoming increasingly recognized for their critical role in intercellular communication for both healthy and diseased cells.


EVs mediate cell-to-cell communication, and are involved in many processes including: Immune signaling, Angiogenesis, Proliferation, Cell differentiation, Stress response.

EVs are used in a paracrine signaling to regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, and recruitment via the molecules that are stored within the vesicles.  Exosomes can travel through different bodily fluids such as the blood stream to reach cells in many different parts of the body to facilitate cell-to-cell communication.

Growth factors are proteins that can locally and systemically affect the growth of cell in multiple ways. Cellular division is influenced by growth factors

Cytokines are another protein that are responsible for regulating the immune response, inflammation, tissue remolding, and cell differentiation 

Growth factors and Cytokine's guide cell differentiation and regeneration in all organs and tissues

Examples of contents/growth factors identified in Exosomes

NID1- extracellular matrix organization, basement membrane organization, positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion.
KRT10- keratinocyte differentiation. 
KRT2- keratinization, epidermis development, keratinocyte proliferation.
ZNF503- neural precursor cell proliferation.
CDH13- cell junction assembly, endothelial cell migration, sprouting angiogenesis, positive regulation of: cell proliferation, cell-adhesion etc.
CTSG- angiotension maturation, extracellular matrix organization, immune response, defense against fungus.
IL7- negative regulation of apoptotic process, positive regulation of T cell differentiation, cell-cell signaling, organ morphogenesis, bone resorption.
EPO- aging, blood circulation, hemoglobin biosynthetic process, erythrocyte maturation, cellular response to hypoxia, positive regulation of cell proliferation.
VIM-  astrocyte development, lens fiber cell development, muscle filament sliding, Bergmann glial cell differentiation, intermediate filament organization.
CLTCL1- anatomical structure morphogenesis, mitotic nuclear division.
CD9- platelet activation, brain development, blood coagulation, cell adhesion.
ECM1- ossification, angiogenesis, inflammatory response, positive regulation of angiogenesis, regulation of T cell migration.
PRNP- learning or memory, axon guidance, cell cycle arrest,  negative regulation of apoptotic process.


Potential Benefits

Exosomes and their potential benefits in the regenerative medicine  therapies:

  • Orthopedics : Joints, Muscles, Bones, Discs, Ligaments , Tendons
  • Wound Care 
  • Hair loss
  • Heart Disease
  • Liver Disease 
  • Lung Disease : COPD, Interstitial Lund Disease
  • Kidney Disease
  • Neurodegenerative disorders : Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimers, Parkinsons, Spinal cord Injuries 
  • Autism
  • Auto-immune Diseases
  • And more!
  • One study demonstrated that micro-vesicles from endothelial progenitor cells fight kidney damage from ischemic events by packaging miRNA responsible for activating regenerative programs in the kidney.



The use of Exosomes is NOT FDA APPROVED. Omar Mora, M.D. does not claim that using Exosomes is a cure or prevent for any condition, disease or injury. All statement and opinions provided here are for educational and informational purposes only. Exosomes are for research use only.